This research discusses a desirable relationship between subject education and the theory of qualities and abilities represented in Japan’s new Course of Study. The Course of Study values acquiring skills going beyond individual subjects. However, the discussion on how to educate those skills in each subject is unclear. Taking the textbook “Modern and Contemporary History” as a case, we conducted content analysis to investigate how the theory of qualities and abilities in the Course of Study is reflected in subject education. Findings indicate that the textbook maintained the core qualities and abilities the subject had pursued, which are learning and utilizing historical content and thinking skills. However, by situating students as independent researchers, which is closely related to the nature of history, the textbook also intended to educate on qualities and abilities that went beyond “Modern and Contemporary History.” This finding implies that educators in individual subjects need to revisit the nature of the subject, identify the qualities and abilities that are not limited to the subject but can still be educated on by the subject due to a close relationship, and adjust those qualities and abilities with other subjects’ ones.