This paper aimed to clarify the institutional framework and learning contents of a school music program focused on learning musical instruments in Hamburg, Germany, and to discuss the impact of the program. The program, “Jedem Kind ein Instrument (JeKi),” in English “a musical instrument for every child,” has been conducted in selected primary schools in Hamburg since 2009. In the first grade, music classes of 2 hours per week based on curriculum guidelines set by the Ministry of Education are provided. In the second grade, pupils take 1 hour of music class and 1 hour of JeKi lessons about musical instruments per week. After becoming familiar with each family of instruments through practical use, students choose the instrument they will learn from the next grade onward. During third and fourth grade, they learn how to play the instrument in small groups once a week, and participate in student concerts. Through field investigation, it was recognized that the JeKi-program has considerable impact, including raising the cultural level of underprivileged children, having a ripple effect on education from child to parent, and improving the quality of music learning through incorporating normal music class and instrument lessons. As a future challenge, giving full consideration to instrument choice and improving instructional skills of music teachers were suggested.