HABITUS Volume 27
published_at 2023-03-20


A study on the background of educational thought history in modern Japan
Li Liye
1.73 MB
Generally speaking, the origin of modern education in Japan can be traced back to the Edo period. At the end of this period, educational institutions such as Hanko (domain school) and Terakoya (a private elementary school in the Edo period) rapidly develop ed , modernizing their educational contents to form the basis for the development of modern education in Japan after the Meiji Restoration. However, the education system at the end of the Edo period strictly distinguished between samurai (warrior class) education and folk education based on the identity system, which was essentially different from the new public education system established after the Meiji Restoration. This study regards t he educational reforms of the Meiji government as the origin of modern Japanese education, and explores the history of modern Japanese educational thought from the Meiji Restoration to the end of World War II along the formulation process of modern Japanese educational system.
The promulgation of the school system in 1872 marked the establishment of the modern Japanese education system, and after several reforms, a new education system guided by European and American educational concepts was established. In 1890, with the issuance of the Imperial Rescript on Education, the Confucian moral education concept was united with the nationalist education concept, and a nationalist education system suitable for the absolute system of the emperor system was established. During the Taisho period, with the development of capitalism, a new education movement emerged leading to an increased demand for education. The new education movement criticized the traditional teacher centered education system, and advocated a new educational concept with children in t he center and respect for individuality. This movement partially reflected the education al requirements of the emerging bourgeoisie, but it did not fundamentally shake the nationalist education system centered on the emperor system. By the 1930s, the education system had become a tool for militarism to rule the people, and eventually collapsed with the defeat of Japan in World War II.