現代中国の宗教法人制度について

廣島法學 Volume 48 Issue 1 Page 136-100 published_at 2024-07-01
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Title ( jpn )
現代中国の宗教法人制度について
Title ( eng )
On the Religious Corporation System in Modern China
Creator
YANG Shuai
Source Title
廣島法學
The Hiroshima Law Journal
Volume 48
Issue 1
Start Page 136
End Page 100
Number of Pages 37
Journal Identifire
[ISSN] 03865010
[NCID] AN0021395X
Abstract
中華人民共和国が建国された後、宗教法人制度は長期にわたり確立されてこなかった。加えて、文化大革命時期に宗教に対する管理は更に困難な状態に陥った。改革開放以降、文化大革命時期の宗教政策の過ちを正す為に、中国は本格的にゼロから段階的に宗教法人制度を創設• 改善している。中国共産党の党内文書「中共中央〈1982〉第19 号文書」は新しい宗教政策を策定し、五つの宗教と七つの宗教組織を公認する。それ以外は全部非公認宗教(組織)ないし邪教(組織)と言える。そのような宗教政策を指針として、中国は「政主教従」の政教関係モデルを形作り、宗教団体法人制度と宗教活動場所法人制度という二つ部分から構成された二重宗教法人制度を設計する。中国の宗教法人制度の設計の難点は、如何に信教の自由の保護と宗教規制の間のバランスを実現するかにある。二重宗教法人制度は非公認宗教組織(邪教組織を含む)と宗教活動に対する締め付けを通じて国民の生命、身体と財産を守り良い社会秩序を維持する役割を果たしているが、宗教的結社の自由が過度に抑圧されると言う副作用をもたらすかもしれない。今後、二重宗教法人制度を如何に改善するかが、中国の宗教事務管理上の重要な課題になる。
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the religious corporation system had not been established for a long time. Additionally, during the Cultural Revolution, the management of religion fell into a more difficult situation. Since the implementation of Reform and Opening-up, China has been gradually establishing and improving the religious corporation system from scratch in order to correct the mistakes of the religious policies during the Cultural Revolution. The internal document of the Communist Party of China(CPC)—"Document No. 19 (1982) of Central Committee of the CPC "—formulated new religious policies and officially recognized five religions and seven religious organizations. All others are considered as unrecognized religions (religious organizations) or cults (cult organizations). Guided by such religious policies, China has formed a special model of politics-religion relation,which is called "Zheng Zhu Jiao Cong"(government leads and religion follows), and designed The Dual Religious Corporation System, which is composed of two parts—Religious Organization Corporation System and Religious Venues Corporation System. The difficulty of designing China's religious corporation system lies in how to achieve a balance between the protection of religious freedom and the regulation of religion . The Dual Religious Corporation System plays a role in protecting the lives, bodies, and properties of citizens and maintaining good social order by restricting unrecognized religious organizations (including cults) and religious activities. However, there is a possibility of excessive suppression of the freedom of religious association. In the future,how to Improve the Dual Religious Corporation System will be an important issue in the management of religious affairs in China.
Keywords
公認宗教
宗教団体法人
宗教活動場所法人
信教の自由の保護
宗教規制
recognized religions
Religious Organization Corporation
Religious Venues Corporation
the protection of religious freedom
religious regulation
Language
jpn
Resource Type departmental bulletin paper
Publisher
広島大学法学会
THE SOCIETY OF LAW OF HIROSHIMA UNIVERSITY
Date of Issued 2024-07-01
Rights
許可なく複製・転載することを禁じる
Publish Type Version of Record
Access Rights open access