JFacApplBiolSciHU_19_221.pdf 2.78 MB
The Development Process and its Factors of Laying Hen Farming in Japan
This Paper intends to clarify the development mechanism of the laying hen farming. For this purpose, the author classified the development process during the post-war period into three stages, and attempted to discover the factors affecting this development through analysis of the farming size differentiation, the movement of location and the changes in productivity.
Divided by these three indicators of average number of hens, of the composition of farmers by size, and of the farmers' organization, the each stage of the development process is characterized as follows. At the first stage from 1955 to 1964, a side-job layer farming was prevailing under stable growth. The second stage was a structural change period between 1965 to 1973, and composite farming of layer with other(s) as well as fulltime poultry farming became a major form. The third stage after 197 4 can be said to be the time for full-time farming and business enterprise specialized in raising hen to a full-size form.
The followings are the major findings on the development factors.
(1) The location of egg production moves out of the suburban areas due to disadvantage of accumulation such as difficulty in preventing infectious diseases, anti-pollution movement against manure disposal and increase of land price and wages. On the other hand, integrated laying hen farming has appeared in faraway localities where enlarged layer size corresponding to the expansion of the egg market brings about scale merit.
(2) The productivity of laying hen farming declined since 1973. The main reason is deterioration of the feeding ration of egg laying caused by higher raise in feed price. However, the larger the farming size becomes, the less the production per 100 kg of eggs costs, thus realizing more profit per unit as scale economy.
(3) The development stages demand different structures in terms of increase of the annual consumption per capita. Increase of consumption at the stable growth stage depended on income increase. In the structural change period, because of large price elasticity under the circumstances egg prices hovered around a low level for a long time, egg consumption increased due to substitution affect. But, at the maturity step, the consumption per capita decreased and reached a stage of satiation.
(4) Enlargement of egg supply is possible on the basis of
i) more dependence on imported feed grains with low price,
ii) introduction of foreign pure breed chickens which have a higher and more stable productivity,
iii) Import and assimilation of feeding techniques for lessening labour and enlarging scale production and
iv) institutional grant-in-aid and financing for equipment investment.
(5) The exogenous factors mentioned above enable managers to pursue scale merits and multiple gains, encouraging,
i) adoption of innovations on production and marketing,
ii) investment in equipment and
iii) formation and strengthening of farmers' organizations in producing districts.