古代日本における歌垣の「垣」に関する比較研究 : 中国ミャオ（苗）族の習俗との比較から
A Comparative Study of the Kaki of Utagaki in Ancient Japan: In Comparison with Miao Peoples’ Customs in China
This comparative research paper especially focuses on an unresolved kaki (垣), which is related to utagaki (歌垣) in ancient Japan. The comparison is based on ancient Chinese literature and field survey results in contemporary China. This paper is composed of four parts. First, the relationship between the ancient Japanese word, utagaki and ancient Chinese will be discussed. In the ancient Chinese literature, a word similar to the Japanese word, kaki, was used to describe several people. Therefore, it could be influential in the process of creating the word utagaki, which might be related to ancient Chinese. Second, the reason for choosing kagai (嬥歌), which is a synonym for utagaki w ill be analyzed. In the Three Kingdoms dynasty, the three kingdoms—Wei, Shu Han, and Wu—are adjacent to each other; therefore, their customs may interact with each other. By the comparison of similar-meaning words to kagai, the special characteristics of the kagai customs are identified. Third, the kaki of utagaki will be studied in reference to the customs, i.e., zuohuachang (坐花場) of the Miao peoples in Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou Province. The kaki of utagaki is not necessarily an ateji and is more likely to have a real meaning. Finally, the kaki of shibagaki (柴垣), karakaki (韓垣), and so on in Kojiki and Nihonshoki will be discussed. In conclusion, the common theme of Shiba-related love is found in ancient China and ancient Japan. The kaki, which means in a bad state, such as fallen shibagaki (切れむ柴垣), burned shibagaki (焼けむ柴垣), and destroyed shibagaki (破れむ柴垣) was used to represent love-related instability. Simultaneously, the comparison of karakaki and kumigaki (組垣) to compare the state of love affairs could be found in Nihonshoki.