ヘンリー1世治世と教会 : 司教と国王パトロネジ
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The Reign of Henry I and the Church : Bishops and Royal Patronage
The English Investiture Controversy was, after Henry I's coronation of 1100, started with the return of Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. In this paper, the influences of the Controversy were examined and the characteristics were clarified in terms of the relationship between the kingship and the church during Henry I's reign.
During the reign, Henry strengthed his control over the ecclesiastics with the policy of keeping the sees vacant and the exercise of his patronage. The former increased his revenue and also provided Henry with chances to sell his patronage at the highest price to the candidates for bishoprics. Thus, two policies were closely related. In his reign, we clearly notice the decrease of monk bishops, the remarkable increase of royal chapel bishops, and the appearance of cathedral clerics like archdeacons and of regular canons for episcopal appointments. The main cases of each group were examined to understand how the royal patronage worked.
Finally, two points were suggested. 1) With the Controversy, two characters of the bishop (administrator of religious work and king's tenant-in-chief) became widely recognized. 2) The patronage has the broad meaning of royal favour and generosity, and also the technical meaning of presenting candidates for benefices. During the Controversy, the royal right of presentation of episcopal candidates was vehemently discussed, so that the king was gradually forced to exercise his patronage very consciously. To such an extent, the royal patronage became characteristic of Henry I's reign.