chiiki31_kusunose.pdf 6.85 MB
The petition movement asking for the immediate convocation of a national assembly in China early in the 20th century (2)
In this paper, I discuss the third stage of the petition movement asking for the immediate convocation of a National Assembly in China. After two previous petition movements had failed, the third movement adopted following measures. 1. indirect petition to the preparatory National Assembly(資政院). 2. direct petition to the head of Ch'ing government(清朝). 3. indirect petition to the provincial governors(督撫). The most important measure of the third stage of the petition movement was 3 that had been by more eleven provinces (省) with many people participated. Thus the third stage became a nation-wide movement. Next I discuss the third stage of the movement in the Zhili Province (直隷省). That movement became so popular that a lot of signatures and contributions were collected. And in that movement, the delegates sent to Peking(北京) to petition and the leaders of the association of comrades (請願同志会) were elected by vote. In addition, when conferences were held, "speeches" played an important role. So I understand in the Zhili Province movement democracy bega to prevail. The third stage of the movement won the promise to convene a parliament in 1913 (instead of 1917). But the government in the decree of 4 November ordered the petitioners to disband. As a result, the petition movement separated two groups. One was satisfied with the result and stopped their activities, another was dissatisfied with the result and refused to disband.
広島大学総合科学部紀要. I, 地域文化研究