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An International Comparison of the Concept of Peace among Nuclear- and War-Affected Areas
The present paper is an initial attempt at the comparison of the peace concept of the youth of five areas which were either nuclear-affected or war/violence-affected. The areas to be compared are: Hiroshima which was hit by an atomic bomb, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan which was affected by hundreds of the Soviet nuclear test, Tomsk, Russia which was threatened by an accident of a secret nuclear facility nearby, Cali, Colombia which was affected by internal conflict, and Jeju, Korea, which experienced a massacre by the government. The comparison is based upon the association experiment survey conducted in 2007 and 2008 in universities of the areas. The number of respondents amounts to some 1.800.
Responses to the survey are first coded and grouped into "categories." Then, on the assumption that the frequency of the category reflects it importance, some 60 categories are selected as representing most important components comprising the peace concept of each areas. The number of categories are further reduced to 20 for the sake of convenience of the comparison in terms of a multivariate procedure.
A correlation analysis shows that the five areas are divided into three groups: Tomsk-Semipalatinsk, Hiroshima-Jeju, and Cali. A factor analysis endorses this division, and further shows that
(1) the peace concept of the Tomsk-Semipalatinsk group emphasizes positive peace aspects in societal and interpersonal relations,
(2) in contrast, the Hiroshima-Jeju group focuses more upon direct violence in international arena, in its peace concept,
(3) the concept of peace in the Cali group covers both direct and structural violence, and both societal and international spheres of peace, though it is rather inclined societal positive peace.
Copyright (c) 2009 Institute for Peace Science, Hiroshima University