義務教育修了後の青少年のための教育機会の拡充 : 日本の経験
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Systematization of post-compulsory education for the working youth : Japanese Experiences
This article aims to review and analyze the historical development of post-compulsory education for the working youth in Japan. In 1872 Japan launched establishing a modern education system modeled on Western countries. In 1886 the government officially announced the introduction of the 3-4 year of compulsory education at the ordinary elementary school. In 1907 the length of compulsory schooling was extended by two years and the six-year compulsory education system became almost fully established. In the meantime, some educators took an increasing interest in post-compulsory education for a large number of youths who did not go on to the secondary schools. In 1893 the Minister of Education Inoue Kowashi issued the Regulations on Vocational Supplementary Schools and encouraged municipalities to establish such a school. It aimed to give simultaneously a supplementary primary education and a low-level vocational education for the working youth. It was planned to be low-cost institution that would make efficient use of the teachers and facilities of the neighboring elementary schools and adopted a flexible part-time instruction. In the first two decades in the 20th century, the vocational supplementary schools, especially those focusing on agricultural education increased rapidly. In 1920 the regulation was revised and the standard and quality of education were considerably improved. Also the number of the female students gradually increased. On the other hand, in 1926 Japanese Army established their own Youth Training Center with the object of giving a preparatory military training for the young adolescents. The activities and functions of the vocational supplementary schools and those of youth training centers overlapped each other and often confused the situation. Finally in 1935, under the initiative of the Army, the two institutions were integrated and Youth School were organized anew. In the youth schools, male students were required of taking seven year supplementary education in total and fi ve year course for female students.
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