インドネシアにおける「地域科」に関する研究 : 国民文化と民族文化の調整を中心に <論文>
A Study of "Muatan Lokal" in Indonesian Education : Regulation between National Culture and Ethnic Culture <Articles>
This paper deals with the development process and structure of "Muatan Lokal" (Local Content) curriculum, with attention to its relevance in balancing education for national and ethnic culture in Indonesia.
State level authorities first introduced "Muatan Lokal" in the 1994 academic year to elementary and junior secondary schools. Prior to 1994, official time allocation was given to only nine of approximately 250 local languages. Where those ethnic crafts, arts, and trades were presented in the school curriculum, they often diverged from the actual population, thus often failing to nurture the ethnic identity of students. Recognizing the potential relationship between school curriculum and the realization of the national policy, "Unity of Variety," "Muatan Lokal," as a specific subject was then identified as worthy of more time allocation in the curriculum. The program is considered to be a positive factor in sloving problems related to national unity as well as to national development.
The introduction of "Muatan Lokal" was decided by the Education and Culture Ministry, as seen in Ordinance Number 412 of 1987. The Ministry has allotted 20% of all school hours for "Muatan Lokal" curriculum. In addition, it established a program with special consideration of local traits to be specified by local education officials. It can be said that the aims of "Muatan Lokal" are to establish community-based identity by means of both teaching local culture and fostering talents that aim at local development. "Muatan Lokal" is considered meaningful and is supported by many in the education sphere as well as in local communities.
Nonetheless, there are critical issues to be considered when developing programs such as "Muatan Lokal." The regulation of nationally versus ethnically-centered education inevitably affects the balance of national and ethnic identity outcomes among students. Based on the 1994 decisions of the state education boards, "Muatan Lokal" was introduced in varying capacities which can be divided into three general categories.
1) West Java and Middle Java teach only that culture that has been recognized in the past by the central Indonesian government.
2) In West Sumatra "Muatan Lokal" is enforced according to national guidelines. Though the national guidelines are recognized the Local Board asserts its own identity as firmly as possible wherever there is an opportunity.
3) In West Kalimantan, locally centered identities are developed and nurtured through recognizing and picking up those national cultural traits considered to be appropriate. The regulation between national and ethnic culture is quite positive.
The initial outcomes of the new curriculum have contributed positively to a newer, more balanced, Indonesian identity that recognized and respects both national and ethnic cultures. The development, structure and process of the "Muatan Lokal" curriculum offer many points to consider in developing local-content education in other multicultural countries.