専門教育に関する歴史的・比較的研究 : 理念,制度,カリキュラムを中心に <論考>
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An Historical and Comparative Study of Professional and Specialized Education : Focusing on the Levels of Concept, System, and Curriculum <ARTICLES>
This article examines professional and specialized education from an historical and comparative perspective. It uses case studies to address changes in use of the terms 'professional education', 'specialized education', and other related terms, at the three different levels of concept, system, and curriculum.
The article consists of the following sections: first, it discusses the various terms and definitions relating to professional education, specialized education, and technical and occupational education, at both the undergraduate and graduate level, at different times and in different countries, especially in the USA, Japan, and China. It examines changes in the concepts of professional and specialized education that have occurred from the time of the medieval European universities, to the 21st century; major educational institutions or sectors that have been expected to provide professional and specialized education since the 12th century; and typical educational materials that have remained associated with professional and specialized education in some countries since the 19th century. The article then touches on recent reforms to professional and specialized education at the levels of concept, system, and curriculum in the UK, the USA, Japan, and China. It concludes with the following arguments. First, currently the term 'professional education' should be considered an integral part of specialized education, at least in the Japanese language; while 'specialized education' refers to much broader fields or areas, including practical, operational, technical, occupational, and vocational education, as well as to traditional professional education at the post-secondary level. Second, the formation of different types of professional or specialized education has been influenced by social change, the advancement of knowledge, and the emergence of new professions or occupations at different periods and in different countries. Third, from historical and comparative perspectives, two models of professional and specialized education have been formed: the continental European model and the US model. In particular, the US model has come to exert a more profound impact on countries such China, Japan, and even Australia. Finally, it seems that recently an increasing emphasis has been placed on the integration of both general e
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