戦争と私立大学 : 戦時期・戦後改革期の私大財政を中心に <論考>
DaigakuRonshu_44_97.pdf 1.11 MB
Japanese Private Universities in the1940s : What were the effects of the World War II on the universities’ finances? <Article>
This article examines the financial situation of private universities in Japan during the wartime (1937-45) and occupation periods (1945-1952). Virtually no existing literature treats the financial condition of Japan’s private institutions during these years. In particular, the paper analyzes the income and expenditure account statements and the statements of financial position for each universitiy available either in university or the National Archives of Japan.
The main findings are as follows:
(1) Between 1937- 43, the first two thirds of the wartime era, the amount of annual revenues of these institutions increased, both the ratio of tuition and fees and the ratio of debt redemption to the revenues decreased, and revenues exceeded expenditures. In addition, the assets of private universities rose in value. Most private universities were becoming wealthier. This was caused mainly by the drastic increase in the number of applicants to higher education and private universities’ expansionist policy.
(2) Between 1943- 45, the last one third of the wartime period, some universities saw their revenues drop, in particular tuition and fee revenues decreased in many institutions because most students had been conscripted. On the other hand, a sudden increase in government subsidy and war insurance benefits offset the fall in income. That might have been accelerated by the reduction of personnel expenses associated with numerous dismissals of faculty members and clerical employees. As a result, monetary damage by war in private universities s remained relatively modest.
(3) During the occupation period, on the contrary, almost every private university faced financial crises. Although their revenues increased in nominal terms, they decreased drastically in real terms because of harsh inflation. The balance of payments moved from surplus to deficit. Universities property severely decreased in value as well.
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