韓国における頭脳獲得・還流政策と留学生政策 : 移民政策との関係性と日本への示唆 <論考>
DaigakuRonshu_47_105.pdf 1.45 MB
Brain Gain / Circulation Policy and International Student Policy in Korea : In Light of its Migration Policy and Implications for Japan <Article>
In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and immigration policies. Korea is one of the Diaspora countries and the number of “Overseas Koreans” including the descendants of those who had emigrated overseas amount to seven million, about fourteen percent of the country’s population. Their existence has been one of the pull factors for overseas study by Korean youth. Their descendants also come to study in Korea. According to a National Science Foundation (NSF) survey, forty-three percent of Koreans received doctoral degrees in the United States will remain there. The network system between Korean students studying overseas and Korean companies has been established to promote their brain return. In 2014, the Korean government announced a comprehensive policy to attract and utilize excellent overseas talents. Its main targets are “Overseas Koreans” and international students studying in Korea. It plans to establish a network between the “Overseas Koreans” and Korean companies to facilitate their brain return and circulation. It also tries to establish a social infrastructure and environment friendly for the foreigners. Though the Japanese government greatly encourages overseas study by its youth, it is also necessary to establish their brain return system similar to the one in Korea. Development of a social infrastructure and environment friendly to the foreigners will be necessary to encourage them and their families stay in Japan, including former international students. Though the number of “Overseas Japanese” is much smaller than that of “Overseas Koreans,” it will be worth considering them as a source of international students and skilled workers in Japan.
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