中観思想と歌 : 『知見の歌』研究(2)
Songs on the Madhyamaka Thought: A Study of the Lta mgur (2)
This article contains an annotated Japanese translation of the Lta mgur of Lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje and its commentary Tshig gi sgron me written by his disciple Dkon mchog ’jigs med dbang po together with an introductory analysis. As the first half of the Lta mgur is studied in my previous article, the remaining portion is treated here.
The central idea of the Lta mgur is that a thing appearing in the mind is empty of its own being, and that it is precisely because it is empty that it appears in the mind like an illusion. The germ of this idea, which Dkon mchog ’jigs med dbang po names “the union of appearance and emptiness” (snang stong zung ’jug), is present in the Indian Madhyamaka literature and is developed by Tsong kha pa and his followers of the Dge lugs pa. It is interesting to find that “the union of appearance and emptiness” is one of the main topics of the belles-lettres (snyan ngag) and spiritual songs (mgur) of the Dge lugs pa tradition. ’Jam dbyangs bzhad pa ngag dbang brtson ’grus, for example, depicts the idea in his ornate poem composed in the Gauḍī style. And it is found in many songs written by Shar skal ldan rgya mtsho, which are characterized by the use of meter of a Tibetan song and clarity of expression. Lcang skya’s Lta mgur is written in the typical style of the Dge lugs pa’s spiritual songs. We may say that is a seminal work of this genre in the sense that the author teaches “the union of appearance and emptiness,” which he considers as the key element of the doctrines of other traditions such as the Rnying ma pa, Sa skya pa, and Bka’ brgyud pa, too, by using metaphorical expressions like “mother” for emptiness and “brother” or “father” for dependent origination, making it comprehensible to the readers both inside and outside of the Dge lugs pa school.