ノルマン征服と「グローバリゼーション」 : 教会改革運動と地域統合
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Norman Conquest and 'Globalization' : The Church Reform Movement and Regional Integration
Regarding the Chuch Reform Movement of 11th and 12th Centuries as a 'Globalization' this paper discussed the inter-actions between 'Globalization' and 'Regionalism' in Anglo-Norman England. As the Roman Papacy tried to establish the ecclesiastical hierarchy within Christian world, it fostered to spread the universal value system and common ecclesiastical standards. The common process for canonization of saints was introduced into England. Three main standards for Chuch Reform were maintained to be observed throughout the world. They were to prohibit the simony, the clerical marriage, and lay investiture. The paper mainly dealt with the problem of lay investirure to clarify how the kings and archbishops reacted to the problem when the wave of 'Globalization' reached England after the Norman Conquest.The reactions of three kings, William I, William II, and Henry I, were discussed in terms of lay investirure and the regional integration under the royal power. The author stressed the point that Henry I 's reign is the turning point, especially the period of 1120s. Henry encountered the Investirure Contest and lost a part of his traditional sanctity which had bestowed him the power to invest bishops with pastoral staff and episcopal ring. Thus, he and his advisors were forced to think of another method to impress people with royal thaumaturgic power, that is, 'Royal Touch', the miracle power to heal leprosy or scrofula. Henry's political situation around 1120 was very crucial in terms of his policy to control Normandy. The author concluded that William of Malmesbury's witness of the advocates of royal miraculous power was a reflection of Henry's crucial situation in his dynastic competion with French kings.