A Study on Livestock and Land Management in Kyrgyzstan
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Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with the livelihood condition of its population determined by climate, landscape, soil, water resources, biodiversity, as well as social and economic conditions. Most of its population derives a substantial proportion of its income from livestock rearing and farming. Moreover, mountainous pastures, which consist 86% of total agricultural land, favour livestock in Kyrgyzstan. The population of all livestock species has been constantly increasing over the years with decline in productivity at national level. Thus, increase in livestock production is realized by mainly increase in numbers of animals. This study's specific objectives are to study the trends in population and composition of livestock diversity by comparing two types of agro-pastoral systems (mainly livestock-additional crop and mainly crop-additional livestock). It also analyses feed types and feeding systems and derived productivity of livestock. It studies cropland and pastures management by analysing economic cost-benefits from crops, and seeks to measure the condition and botanical composition of pastures by assessing the extent of their utilisation. Moreover, it examines the social and economic context of agro-pastoral systems in terms of income sources. A household survey was conducted by administering semi-structured questionnaires to households and pastoralists. And pasture measurement survey in two Village Governments (VGs) of Ala-Buka district. It was done to understand the factors effecting agro-pastoral systems and mountain pastures.
From the survey and analysis of agro-pastoral systems, it was found that considerable changes are taking place in livestock population, herd composition, and management systems with different predominance of livestock species. Changes in livestock population are closely associated with land holding, forage and pasture availability. The households' perceptions about the changes in their herd sizes show that the total livestock population is increasing in both VGs. In Torogeldy Baltagulov Village Government is 65% and in 1-May Village Government is 62% respectively. The main reason for the changes in herd composition are income level from livestock and market demand for livestock and its products in general. The most noticeable change is the considerable decline in cattle and goats numbers in BVG, and in sheep numbers in MVG households. The higher number of cows correlates with the major reason of keeping cattle for dairy products; mainly self-consumption and selling extra products in the market, and also using dung as winter fuel. Horse and donkey numbers increased due to the necessity of draft power in the households (HHs).
The increase in the number of horses and donkeys can be an indication of advanced rural poverty as the poor prefer to use livestock in order to avoid extra expenditure for tractor services, such as fuel and rent payments to tractor owners. It can also attributed to insufficient numbers of agricultural machines during land preparation, intercultural operations, harvesting and transporting. On the other hand, the increase in the use of livestock for agricultural purposes decreases the use of agricultural machines; thereby leading to low carbon agriculture. This will be crucial in mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change on human beings and environment through reduced GHG emissions. Forage scarcity is considered the main factor regulating the herd size. Forage scarcity occurs at the end of winter. The main reason of forage scarcity is caused by lack of enough time for hay making during summer. Time shortage for hay-making corresponds with the changing weather condition as climate change causes the depletion of forage species in nearby pasture. Forage availability and scarcity affect milk yield and the shape of lactation curve. On the other hand, lack of breeding technology (artificial insemination) and unplanned calving without considering forage availability decreased the productivity of cows. Thus, lactation curves were very sensitive in winter and autumn calving season in MVG and winter and summer calving season in BVG. Besides, the majority number of cows falls under those calving seasons, which are suffering from 'low productivity'. As a result, this affects the total milk yield as cows are becoming less productive; thereby decline in productivity. However, the total milk produced in the district as well as at national level is still increasing due to the increase in the number of cattle.
The cropping patterns in the study area vary for self-consumption, forage and cash income. Majority of HHs in BVG used the main land area for wheat (self-consumption) growing, whereas in MVG, maize (forage) was grown in large areas. However, wheat cropland area decreased due to lack of properly working combine harvesters and high costs. Thus, the majority of HHs uses their land for forage and cash crops. It was found that HHs can sell their livestock and buy wheat after harvesting in summer at low price from local markets or imported wheat flour. The costs and benefits from crops are reflected by crop productivity and demand. The greatest benefits were recorded for vegetables produced in kitchen gardens, due to high demand with good price at local and urban markets. Majority of HHs informed that crop yield from 2005 to 2010 decreased and only few HHs had increase in crop yield in both VGs. The low yields for all crops were also attributed to the changes in weather condition, new crop diseases and unfavourable condition for seedlings.
A decline in pasture productivity was also observed in remote pastures, although there was less intensive grazing caused mainly an increase in invasion of semi-arid and steppe grass species, such Artemisia and Stipa spp. in Chapchyma pastures, bushes such as Rosaceae and Ephedra spp.in Chanach-Say pastures. It can be concluded that forage grass species are suffering from triple risks; overgrazing (near-village pastures), dominating non-edible plants, and climate change (remote pastures). It was found that in the last decade, Artemisia species moved up by 200 m in Chapchyma pastures due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. On the other hand it can be attributed to the drying Aral Sea which affects soil quality in mountain pastures. Such conditions also favour the growth of Artemisia species, which lead to aridization of mountain pastures in South-Western Tien-Shan.
広島大学大学院国際協力研究科 平成23年度 修士論文
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