KJ00000197213.pdf 934 KB
Effects of Affective-evaluative Response to CSs on Fear Conditioning
The preparedness theory of phobia holds that humans are biologically prepared to learn to fear ohjects and situations that threatened the human species throughout its evolutonary history (Seligman, 1971). Biological preparedness is postulated to be responsible for the rapid acquition of fear, a resistance to the influence of cognitive factors, resistance to extinction, and belongingness. Because of some difficulties, many reseachers suggest that preparedness effects may be produced by cognitive factors rather than biological factors. The present experiment aimed to test whether preparedness effects were found on CRs to neutral stimulus by semantic conditioning. In semantic conditioning, subjects recieved nine presentations of two types of CS word-UCS word pair. CS words were 'circle' and 'triangle', and UCS words were 'noisy' and 'silent'. After semantic conditioning, they were classically conditioned by nine CS-UCS pairs. The figure of circle was used as CS+, and CS-was that of triangle. Loudy-noise was used as UCS. In SCC group, CS word-UCS word pairs ('circle'-'noisy', 'triangle'-'silent') were meaningly concordant with CS-UCS pair. In SCD group, CS word-UCS word pairs ('circle'-'silent', 'triangle'-'noisy') were meaningly discordant with CS-UCS pair. Subjects of control group didn't expose to semantic conditioning. Heart rate, score of Affective Adjective Check List and affective-evaluative response (preference) to CSs were measured as indexes of conditioned response (CR). Primary results were as follows : (1) Directions of change on preferences to CSs by semantic conditioning and classical conditoning were concordant. (2) During classical conditioning, compared with other groups, SCC group's A. A. C. L. score were low, and SCD group's HR was higher than SCC group's. (3) Differentiation of initial preferences to CSs didn't effected on reported anxiety. These results indicated that preparedness effects could not be found by initial semantic relations between CSs and UCS, and by initial preference to CS.
広島大学総合科学部紀要. IV, 理系編