中国人留学生の日本留学決定要因に関する研究 : Push-and-Pullモデルに基づいて
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How did Chinese Students Decide to Study in Japan? An Analysis Based on the Push-and-Pull Model
Using a Pull-and-Push Model, this paper presents a case study of Chinese students studying in Japan to illustrate the mobility of international students.
Firstly, a cost-and-benefit model was used to analyze the decision-making process of studying in a foreign country, to point out that this model is a static analysis, and to note that the content of cost and benefit are different over time due to environmental characteristics in sending countries and receiving countries. Consequently, a dynamic analysis is needed.
The Push-and-Pull model was lead into the research, pointed out that more than two forces were acting simultaneously, and their resultant forces could determine which direction to move towards. The choice of which country they go to study is made by their consideration of multiple factors, such as the comparison between their home country and prospective host country. Which country is chosen as a destination country is decided after they make a comprehensively comparative study of various factors concerning their home countries and several possibilities for overseas study.
Therefore, based on the Push-and-Pull model, this research focused on the relationship between the sending country, the receiving country and the foreign students, as well as influences from other countries. Meanwhile, the cost and benefit of studying in Japan of each period are also taken into consideration.
The Chinese students studying in Japan were divided into three periods. With the changing of time, the factors that influenced decision-making to study in Japan have diversified. However, there has always been the same purpose for seeking advanced education and abundant employment opportunity throughout all these periods. These characteristics are particularly prominent in Period I and II. Since Period III, more and more students have gone abroad for the purpose of acquiring foreign experiences.
With the advancement of globalization, it has become much easier for Chinese students to study abroad. They have more options for destination countries than before. Along with rapid economic development, there have emerged more employment opportunities than previously, and domestic income has increased rapidly. All of these have decreased the effect of pull because of the increase of opportunity cost.
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