再定位された「地域社会」「集団」「共同性」と都市社会教育 : 戦後初期・高度成長期の都市公民館，成人学校を中心とした歴史的素描
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The Relocated Concepts of 'Community', 'Groups' and 'Cooperativeness' and Municipal Social Education in Urban Areas: A Historical Overview of Urban Kominkans and Adult Schools in the Early Post-War and the High-Growth Period of Japan
Community learning centers in Japan, well known as kominkans, began to be established as social education (i.e. non-formal education in Japan) facilities just after WWII, and their activities were based on the concepts of ‘community’, ‘groups’ and ‘cooperativeness.’ The combination of these concepts remained to be the fundamental principle of municipal social education even after the high-growth period, though the social context substantially transformed. We should examine why and how these concepts remained as the principle of municipal social education.
The analysis in this study revealed two findings. Firstly, although these concepts remained to be the elements of the principle for municipal social education, after the high-growth period they were relocated as the keywords which indicate an ideal situation that should be generated by the activities of kominkans, rather than as the presupposition of their activities. Secondly, these concepts were referred to in the activities of adult schools, which were managed mainly by municipal social education administration in urban areas.
Many municipality have referred to these concepts even after the high-growth period because there were no other realistic alternatives. The resources for municipal social education have been limited after the high-growth period. Under such circumstances, kominkans, established mainly before 1970s as social education facilities of community level, have been available and important resources. Thus, the combination of the concepts, which is suitable for the activities of kominkan, remained to be the principle of municipal social education, although modified according to the urbanization throughout and after the high-growth period.