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Effects of perfectionism in learning on achievement motivation and achievement goals
Perfectionism, the excessive expectation of perfection, affects learning motivation and behavior. There are two major aspects of perfectionism: (1) a tendency to set high goals (personal standards) and (2) a tendency to care too much about failure (concern over mistakes). Concern over mistakes has long been regarded as a single concept; however, it can be divided into that for the results of achievement behavior and that for the process to attain conclusive results. Therefore, we divided the concept into two and examined the relationship between achievement motivation and achievement goals. A questionnaire survey of university students found that when learners care excessively about failure, they are motivated by a sense of anxiety about failure as well as a sense of fulfillment or competition with others. With regard to goal orientation, it was suggested that having high goals leads to goals for improving one's own ability and to goals for obtaining positive evaluation from others, and that concern over the results of achievement behavior leads to goals for avoiding negative evaluation from others.
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