Growth and Location Change of Pharmaceutical Industry in Japan since 1945
This paper examines growth and location change of pharmaceutical R&D laboratories in Japan since 1945.
The date base was Nationwide List of Research Institutes(Zenkoku Shiken-Kenkyukikan Meikan)published 1963(year1962), 1971-72(1970), 1981-82(1980), 1991-92(1990), and 2002-03(2001). And to understand industrial structure used Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare data. The results can be summarized as follows.
It is important for pharmaceutical companies that improve R&D to survive global competition. However before 1975, Japanese pharmaceutical companies did not recognize importance of R&D. In 1975, revised patent law was changed this situation. Japanese government has adopted substance patent. So Japanese pharmaceutical companies could not reverse engineering. After that many Japanese companies began to R&D in-house.
In 1962 and 1970, R&D laboratories were concentrated in the central Tokyo and Osaka. Because of major pharmaceutical companies' headquarter locate in central Tokyo and Osaka and R&D facilities co-locate with headquarter.
In 1980, we could see decentralization of R&D. The number of R&D increased in Toyama, Takaoka, Tokushima and so on. Because of revised patent law in 1975 was effected Japanese companies shift to R&D in-house.
In 1990, have an increased number of R&D facilities in Tsukuba Science City where was launched by the national government to encourage the decentralization of R&D from Tokyo. In 1980s, many foreign companies entry into a Japanese market and global R&D competition was very severe. So Japanese pharmaceutical companies would like to build new and large R&D facilities in nearly Tokyo.
Environment around the R&D in pharmaceutical industries have been changed and location pattern of R&D facilities also changed.