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ID 18515
本文ファイル
別タイトル
The Origin of the German School Report
著者
卜部 匡司
キーワード
通信簿
ドイツ
歴史研究
School Report
Germany
Historical study
NDC
教育
抄録(英)
This paper examines the origin and subsequent development of the German school report (Schulzeugnisse) with a particular focus on how it was first initiated. Several scholars assert that the current structure of the German school report is rooted in the 16th century, when the Reformation was launched by Martin Luther. The religious confrontation between the Catholic and the Protestant reconstructed the school system in Germany. The German school report has two intrinsic dimensions: as a certifying document (Zeugnisse) and as a grading document (Zensuren/Noteri). The earliest certificate was provided as the "Certificate for Charity" (Benefizienzeugnisse) in order to allow poor children to attend schools operated by the Protestant states. On the other hand, Catholic Jesuit schools adopted a competitive evaluation system to motivate and encourage students, which led to the institutionalization of marks/grades system.
掲載誌名
広島大学大学院教育学研究科紀要. 第三部, 教育人間科学関連領域
53号
開始ページ
159
終了ページ
165
出版年月日
2005-03-28
出版者
広島大学大学院教育学研究科
国立情報学研究所
ISSN
1346-5562
NCID
SelfDOI
言語
日本語
NII資源タイプ
紀要論文
広大資料タイプ
学内刊行物(紀要等)
DCMIタイプ
text
フォーマット
application/pdf
著者版フラグ
publisher
部局名
教育学研究科
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