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The Origin of the German School Report
This paper examines the origin and subsequent development of the German school report (Schulzeugnisse) with a particular focus on how it was first initiated. Several scholars assert that the current structure of the German school report is rooted in the 16th century, when the Reformation was launched by Martin Luther. The religious confrontation between the Catholic and the Protestant reconstructed the school system in Germany. The German school report has two intrinsic dimensions: as a certifying document (Zeugnisse) and as a grading document (Zensuren/Noteri). The earliest certificate was provided as the "Certificate for Charity" (Benefizienzeugnisse) in order to allow poor children to attend schools operated by the Protestant states. On the other hand, Catholic Jesuit schools adopted a competitive evaluation system to motivate and encourage students, which led to the institutionalization of marks/grades system.
広島大学大学院教育学研究科紀要. 第三部, 教育人間科学関連領域