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The Transition of Educational Policies and Initiatives for the Inuit in Canada
This paper describes and examines the transition of educational policies and initiatives for the Inuit of Canada since 1950. From 1950 to 1970, the federal government implemented educational policies based on the idea of assimilation. Inuit students were relocated to residential schools in the south, attended day schools or missionary schools in their communities. Teaching styles and curriculum introduced in these schools were unfamiliar to the Inuit, resulted in identity conflicts, difficulties readjusting to their communities and cultural gaps between generations. Most of these problems were caused by a lack of consideration for their culture in educational policies and initiatives. In 1970 administrative responsibility for northern schools was turned over to the government of the Northwest Territories from the federal government, from which time the educational system has become increasingly responsive and better suited to the Inuit's cultural needs. The implementation "Innuquatigiit", a curriculum from the Inuit perspective in 1996, was particularly significant development. In addition to administrators and teachers, communities, especially elders, were involved in process of its development, the major educational goals of which are to pass down Inuit traditions and develop their identity. The transformation of educational administration represented a significant shift in educational policies for the Inuit in terms of its development, educational goals and curriculum. In 1999, establishment of Nunavut Territory gave the Inuit, which comprise about 85 percent of the population of this area, the right to self-government. At present, the Inuit are embarking new educational policies concerning their educational needs.
広島大学大学院教育学研究科紀要. 第三部, 教育人間科学関連領域