カンボジア社会科教科書における音楽題材の特徴 : 初等科第1学年～第3学年の社会科・理科統合科目教科書に着目して
MusicCultEduc_31_83.pdf 939 KB
Features of Music Subjects in Cambodian Social Studies Textbooks: Science and Social Studies Textbooks from Elementary School First Grade to Elementary School Third Grade
In Cambodia, the Pol Pot regime massacred teachers and other intellectuals and cultural figures, and the educational system was thoroughly destroyed in the 1970s. Although education reconstruction is currently progressing, various problems remain in Cambodia, including low salaries for teachers and the use of children as a labor force.
Music does not currently exist as a distinct subject in Cambodia, and is treated as part of social studies. Social studies in Cambodia aims to develop identity through self-cultural education, as part of the government’s approach to supporting individuals to regain their ethnic identity after the Pol Pot administration and subsequent civil war. Although music is treated as part of social studies, music education is minimal at schools in Cambodia. The reasons for this include the cultural destruction under the Pol Pot administration, and an absence of teachers who can teach music.
All of the musical themes dealt with in the current Cambodian elementary social studies curriculum are focused on traditional Cambodian music. In social studies, music is considered a tool for identity development, and is designed to help children understand the framework of the Cambodian state.
To address this situation, the Cambodian Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport started an educational reform process in 2016. This reform determined that art subjects would be set as new subjects, requiring the development of teaching materials and human resources. The nonprofit organization that supports music education for Cambodia for many years applied for the JICA Partnership Program, and was adopted as a “primary school art education support project”. The goal of the project was to foster the basic environment necessary to systematically disseminate art education.
The current study focused on the possibility of self-cultural education through music in Cambodia, which has a rich musical cultural history. In addition, the features of music subjects in the current science and social studies textbooks from elementary school first grade to elementary school third grade were examined, and their usefulness as textbook teaching materials was evaluated.