音楽教育を重視する学校教育カリキュラムがもたらす学習効果 : 知的，社会的，個人的発達における効果の研究動向
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The Effects of School-Based Extended Music Education on Intellectual, Social and Personal Development: A Review
The aim of this research is to review the effects of a school-based Extended Music Education (EME) in the fields of children’s intellectual, social and personal development. Various organizations and research institutes are exploring the effects based on the claim that art education remains indispensable activity in the future society, and music education isn’t an exception. For many years, music teachers and pedagogues believed music activities promoted harmonious child development. However, until the late 20th century, little scientific research showed evidence. Nowadays, the studies of music education’s impact reach a big extent including neurosciences, literacy and numerical skills, perceptual skills, aural and visual memory, spatial reasoning, social aspects such as social cohesion or inclusion, personal development aspects, and many other issues, revealing several positive effects of the discipline. This research will specifically review the studies that examine the impact of a school-based EME in intellectual, social and personal development aspects. The term of EME is applied in those school curriculums that give emphasis on music instruction with more music classes than the standard. The studies from the 1990s comprising these matters were included. To understand the research stream of this area, the differences and similarities of the research context, objectives, methods and conclusions between the studies were analyzed. Concerning the impact in intellectual faculties, some studies suggested that music engagement improved general attainment and academical aspects, while others demonstrated that additional music classes with the reduction of other core subjects don’t affect negatively to the academic competences in language and mathematics. Next, in the social aspect, many studies suggested that music engagement promoted student’s wellbeing in their classes. Some studies also mentioned that music helped the construction of social cohesion. Lastly, there were discovered several effects in the self-perception, self-esteem, motivation to study music itself and other disciplines. In addition, music engagement seems to be positive for week students and socially/economically disadvantaged students. This research will summarize the aspects mentioned and will suggest the further possibilities for investigation in the same field.