ザンビアの教育と日本の国際協力 : オーナーシップの含意をめぐって <研究論文>
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Education in Zambia and Japan's International Cooperation : Focusing on the Implications of Ownership <Articles>
Zambia has experienced a critical situation in educational development along with economic deterioration since mid-1980s. At the same time, the Government has been in the process of educational reform with the assistance of development partners. The principal target stated in Educating Our Future (1996) is to achieve nine-year universal basic education by 2015, which is in line with one of the international development targets adopted by DAC/OECD in the same year. In this regard, educational policy in Zambia has been partly influenced by the development community outside the country.
Ownership and partnership are often emphasised in various aid policy papers as a major strategy. A sector-wide approach or sector programme is a relatively new aid modality, which is encouraged to increase effectiveness and efficiency of aid and to enhance the ownership of the recipient country. It sounds quite noble, but the reality seems to be different from rhetoric. What is happening now in Zambia, for example, appears to be against the original idea of ownership. The team of development partners appears to have a greater impact on educational policy formulation in that country.
Education systems in many African countries stem from those in metropolitan countries. Consequently, Japan used to be disadvantaged in providing aid to many African countries. However, Japan is in an advantageous position because it can have fresh and different views on education. Japan has traditionally paid much attention to the self-help efforts and the cultural aspects of developing countries in international cooperation. Japanese aid policy based on its unique experience and history could be utilised by African countries as well as other development partners in promoting educational cooperation.