国際教育協力における調査手法に関する一考察 : IST法によるケニア調査をめぐって <研究論文>
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A Study of the Research Method in International Educational Cooperation : Through the Research in Kenya by Using the IST Method <Articles>
The purpose of this paper is to consider one of the ways that may be applied to educational research in developing countries in order to take account of cultural aspects which are generally mot given much attention.
Educational cooperation principally aims at assisting to construct modern schooling system. In recent years, such cooperation has focused on software aspects of education including institutional and capacity building. In this situation, it must be noted that focusing on local culture and respecting cultural diversity are of prime importance. The paper therefore attempts to illuminate some of the solutions about how the modern educational system can integrate traditional aspects of the society. In addition, by utilizing the findings of the field research in the Masai area of Kenya as an example, it tries to show how important viewpoints examined in the study could also be useful for international educational cooperation.
Chapter 1 surveys the local and school culture. Through rapid modernization and nation building, the modern education system set up in the traditional society seems to create tensions between the norms in the traditional society and the ideals in school education. The induction of such education system has given significant distortion between the societies and the schools. Development partners such as aid agencies are therefore supposed to take cultural diversity into full consideration in international cooperation in the field of education, especially in primary education.
Chapter 2 illustrates how the modern educational system is organized in the local society and how it is influenced in Kenya. Four methods are adopted: individual pupils' filing system, class observation through videotaping, interviewing and questionnaires. The individual filing system is named IST method (Individual Students Tracing Method), consisting of individual information, physical data, pictures and economic check sheets. It can be easily organized by observing and recording the growth of each student regularly. At the same time, in order to understand the traditional education system of the Masai, it is useful to study each person's educational record by applying the life history method.
Chapter 3 presents and assesses the basic school data collected from the field survey, by analyzing the students' numbers, the dropout rates, the ratios of boys and girls and their ages. It also explains the causes of their dropouts. Lastly it is shown why the IST method is useful and meaningful for research in educational development.