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The effect of perceptual training on the anticipation of tennis service-return
The first purpose of this study was to examine the influence of explicit and implicit instruction about anticipatory cues inherent in tennis player's movements on the conscious usage of the anticipatory cues. The second purpose was to examine transfer effects to a new player. Twentyone intermediate tennis players participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to an explicit instruction group, an implicit instruction group, or a control group. Anticipatory cues were introduced to the explicit instruction group only. Participants in the implicit instruction group were instructed to react intuitively. Participants in the control group performed only test trials. All participants anticipated courses of the opponent's serve and reacted as quickly and accurately as possible by pressing keys. The explicit and implicit instruction groups performed 20 test trials and 52 perceptual training trials on the first day. They had 20 test trials and 104 perceptual training trials on the second day. They also had 20 test trials on the third day. The results showed that the three groups did not improve their anticipatory skills. No transfer effect was observed in this study. Although levels of awareness of anticipatory cues were not significantly different among the three groups, contents of anticipatory cues were different. While the explicit instruction group used the anticipatory cues provided by the experimenter, the implicit instruction and control groups used anticipatory cues which were different from those provided to the explicit instruction group, suggesting that participants without explicit instruction tried to discover anticipatory cues by themselves.
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科紀要. I, 人間科学研究
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