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ID 27822
本文ファイル
別タイトル
THE FUNCTION OF CONCEPTUAL SORTING IN MEMORY OF EARLY CHILDREN
著者
宮崎 正明
加来 秀俊
NDC
心理学
教育
抄録
実験Iでは記憶能力と概念分類能力との関係が検討された。被験児は4才児,5才児,6才児,各30名であった。各年齢段階の被験者は15名ずつ,高頻度語群と低頻度語群に分けられた。被験者は絵カードを分類しながら記銘する課題が課せられた。記銘材料は16語からなっており,4語ずつ4つのカテゴリーに属していた。高頻度語群は高頻度語からなる記銘材料を,低頻度語群は低頻度語からなる記銘材料を記名した。その結果,年齢発達に伴って,正分類カテゴリー数が増加し,それを反映して再生語数も増加することが明らかになった。
抄録(英)
The relationship between the ability to sort words into categories and to memorize these words was investigated in Experiment 1. The Ss were 90 kindergarten children divided into 3 groups with mean CAs of 4; 2, 5 ; 0, and 6; 2. Each of these age groups was further divided into subgroups of 15 Ss each, a high frequency group and a low frequency group. The Ss were instructed to sort pictures into categories, and memorize these pictures. Two different lists of 16 words each were used. Both lists consisted of 4 words from each of 4 conceptual categories, namely, vegetable, fruit, clothing, and vehicle. One of the lists consisted of frequent category members and the other of infrequent category members. The results indicated that the number of categories correctly sorted and the number of words recalled increased in parallel as a function of age. These results were interpreted as showing that the development in memory is closely related to the development in concept.

The purpose of Experiment 2 was to investigate whether the utilization of concept facilitates the storage process or the. ,retrieval process of memory. The basic design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial with three between-subject variables. These included sorting task (presence or absence of the sorting task), retrieval cues (presence or absence of the retrieval cues), and age. The Ss were 180 kindergarten children similarly divided into 3 age groups with mean CAs of 4; 3, 5; 2, and 6; 3. The lists were the same as used in high frequency condition in Experiment 1. The results indicated that retrieval cues markedly facilitated recall in all age levels, although the main effect of sorting task was not obtained. These results were interpreted as indicating that the utilization of concept aids the retrieval process rather than the storage process of memory. Furthermore, it was noticed that the utilization of concept also helps the storage process since the sorting task x retrieval cue interaction was obtained.
掲載誌名
教育心理学研究
24巻
4号
開始ページ
217
終了ページ
223
出版年月日
1976-12-30
出版者
日本教育心理学会
ISSN
0021-5015
NCID
言語
日本語
NII資源タイプ
学術雑誌論文
広大資料タイプ
学術雑誌論文
DCMIタイプ
text
フォーマット
application/pdf
著者版フラグ
publisher
部局名
教育学研究科