Renal Osteodystrophy in Hemodialysis Patients
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Quantitative computed tomography with phantom
Patterns of bone loss in the axial and appendicular skeleton were studied in 88 chronic hemodialysis patients (59 males and 29 females) and 60 normal volunteers (30 males and 30 females). The hemodialysis patients were properly medicated with phosphate binders and 1α-OH D3 where necessary. The metacarpal index (MCI), Σ gray scale I diameter (ΣGS/D) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured as bone mass indices, and the relationship investigated between clinical factors [age, duration of hemodialysis, serum phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), carboxy-terminal fragments of parathyroid hormone (C-PTH), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and Ca × P]. The bone loss in the hemodialysis patients was greater than that in the normal controls and was accelerated after menopause in women. However, the bone mass indices in a few of the hemodialysis patients of advanced age (over 60) showed higher values than those of the controls. The bone mass indices in male hemodialysis patients showed a negative correlation with the hemodialysis duration, C-PTH and OC, as did those in female patients with hemodialysis duration. On the other hand, BMC in female hemodialysis patients showed a negative correlation with P, C-PTH and Ca × P. In conclusion, age and the duration of hemodialysis are the most essential factors in skeletal and trabecular bone loss in male and female hemodialysis patients. Subsequent factors responsible for skeletal bone loss in male patients are C-PTH and OC, and those for trabecular bone loss in female patients are P, C-PTH and Ca × P. Control of the levels of C-PTH, OC, P and Ca × P is recommended for prevention of bone loss in hemodialysis patients.
Hiroshima Journal of Medical Sciences
Hiroshima University Medical Press