インドにおけるガーンディー教育思想の継承 : ナイー・タリームの思想と実践の展開
Succession of Gandhi’s Education Thought in India : Development of Nai Talim thought and practice
This paper aims to clarify the thought and practice of "Nai Talim (new education)" promoted by the people called Gandhian, and to understand Mahatma Gandhi’s educational thought more deeply.
Mahatma Gandhi significantly influenced educational policy of India during the independent period. He criticized colonial education which strongly focused on the English language, and perceived“ true education” as“ every Indian citizen’s independence”. And he named new and true education“ basic education”.
"Basic education" which consisted of 7-years compulsory education and adopted “handicraft” as educational method and native language as instructional medium, was advocated at the 1937 All India National Education Conference. The most important principle of “basic education" is the concept of "self-supporting".
By cultivating "self-supporting", not only does education strengthen children's life capability, but it also promotes economic and mental independence of the India society as a whole.
Gandhi extended the framework of "basic education" to lifelong education in 1945, and established "Nai Talim. This education was emphasized the concept of self-supporting" in all the educational stages for rural reconstruction. However, the Indian National Congress government did not agree with “Nai Talim” because they attached greater importance to industry than to rural reconstruction. Gandhi died in January, 1948. But Gandhian inherited the educational thought and practice of "Nai Talim".
This paper clarified Gandhi’s educational thought by analyzing the thought and practice of "Nai Talim" after his death.
広島大学大学院教育学研究科紀要. 第三部, 教育人間科学関連領域