A Sociological Study of Teaching-Learning Process in Higher Education
This paper attempts to consider the macro and micro aspects of teaching learning process in higher education.
The first part of this paper considers the macro aspects of teaching-learning process in higher education in Japan. Dividing the higher education system into four different levels (system level, institutional level, operating level, individual level), the social and organizational character of teaching in higher education in Japan are discussed.
The second part of this paper considers the micro aspects of teaching-learning process in higher education from the view point of the evaluation of teaching: assessment of learning outcomes, analysis of teacher characteristics and pedagogical behavior. This part summerizes fundamental defects in traditional approaches to the evaluation of teaching in higher education: 1) validity of student evaluation 2) effectiveness of student evaluation of teaching in higher education. The several new directions in the evaluation of teaching in higher education are discussed.