私立高等教育機関の組織変化のパターンとその要因 : 学校法人を分析単位として
JpnJEducRes_56-2_137.pdf 683 KB
A Study on the Patterns and Factors of Organizational Transformation of Private Higher Educational Institutions in Japan
This paper analyses the factors of organizational transformation in private higher educational institutions in Japan over the past three decades. This study has taken up as the unit of analysis all the higher educational institutions which any single School Juridical Person (Gakkou-hojin) has established. For the establishment of school juridical persons, there were observed two peak periods - a few years following 1950 as well as the 1960s.
The organizational transformations were analyzed from three points of view : vertical expansion (upgrading from two-year to four-year colleges), horizontal expansion (establishment of new divisions and departments), and expansion in size (proliferation of the student body in the higher educational institutions under a school juridical person).
The number of institutions which were analyzed from the point of view of vertical expansion was 183. Similarly, 222 governing bodies were analyzed with respect to horizontal expansion and expansion in size. All these bodies emerged and established private higher educational institutions between 1960 and 1969.
The results are as follows :
1) From three points of view, women's colleges expanded less in comparison with co-educational institutions.
2) Those institutions which started with departments of science, engineering or agriculture expanded their student enrolments, but they tended to specialize. Those which started with humanities departments diversified their departments. Those which started with home-economics or education departments added new departments and expanded student enrolment.
3) Those institutions located in cities with rapid population growth underwent on expansion in student enrolment.
4) Those institutions in which authority was centralized underwent an expansion in student enrolment.
The main factors of organizational transformation for private higher educational institutions in Japan 'are found in the characteristics which were imprinted on them at the time of their foundation.