高等教育システム・経営研究のレビュー <論考> <創立40周年記念特集 : 高等教育研究の回顧と展望>
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A Review of the Studies on Higher Education System and Management of Institution <Article> <Special Issue : Retrospect and Prospect of Higher Education Studies>
This paper reviews the research, written mostly in the Japanese language, which have been conducted since 2004 on higher education system and management of institutions. The studies in these areas can be categorized the macro and micro levels. The former deal with the system of higher education; types of establishing bodies of institutions; and system administration and its supervising while the latter ones deal with the management and governance of individual institutions and internal allocation of their resources. After examining the longitudinal trend of the college going rate and public expenditures on Japanese higher education from 1960 to the present, this paper explains that both the college going rate and public funding for higher education have simultaneously increased between 1960 and 1990, but over the last two decades public expenditures have not grown to support expansion of the college going population. This decrease in funding is why university reforms have been implemented to vitalize university education and research using less public resources. This paper especially reviews the studies on national university reform in 2004; governance and management of private universities; and quantitative growth and qualitative changes of local public universities. Finally it reviews research on foreign university reforms including European, American, Chinese and Taiwanese. It is important to consider the implications of these for Japanese university reform in the future.
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