明治・大正期における農業技術の革新と農民 : 広島・秋田両県の比較から
HUSFLSP_57-1.pdf 4.06 MB
The Study of the Technical Innovation of Agriculture and the Peasant's Activity in Landholder System, in Meiji-Taisyo Era
In this article, I analyzed the process of Japanese Modern Technical Innovation of Agriculture by many peasants in Meiji-Taisyo Era, for I think that analysis is the key to link between the study on Japanese Modern Landholder System and the historical study on agricultural technique.
This study is made on Hiroshima Prefecture, that had so much population and therefore the smallest-scale farmers in Japan, and Akita Prefecture, that had less population and therefore the most extensive cultivation.
The rice crop level per quarter of an acre, 1 tan (反), of both Prefectures was about 150 kg in weight, 1 koku (石) in volume, till 1890-1900's, when it was established the landholder system and capitalism in Japan. But that level had risen to 2 koku in volume, in 1910-1920's, by many peasant's technical innovation of agriculture. Why did they innovate their traditional agricultural technique? In the south area of Hiroshima Prefecture many peasants had begun to grow the late raice "Shinriki" (神力), and in middle-north area the early or middle rice "Hattan" (八反), and in Akita Prefecture the middle rice "Kame-no-O" (亀ノ尾), every rice type had the property to increase crop. Therefore, I think, they had begun to innovate technique to realize their profit by increasing crop, adopting various new techniques, that is seed choice by saltwater (塩水選), drying rice paddy (乾田), line planting (正条植), more fertilizer (多肥化), deep cultivate (深耕) and so on, even in the landholder system.