行為と言語 : サンスクリット意味論研究 : 動詞語根の意味
Action and Language : A Study of Sanskrit Semantics : the Meanings of Verbal Roots
This paper consists of an annotated translation into Japanese of Kauṇḍabhaṭṭa's Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra on the first two verses (kārikā) of the Vaiyākaraṇamatonmajjana or Vaiyākaṇasiddhāntakārikā by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita.
Verses run as follows.
k.l. phaṇibhāṣitabhāsyābdheḥ śabdakaustubha uddhṛtaḥ /
tatra nirṇīta evārthaḥ saṁkṣepeṇeha kathyate //
k.2. phalavya̅pa̅rayor dha̅tur a̅śraye tu tiṅaḥ smṛta̅ḥ /
phale pradha̅naṁ vya̅pa̅ras tiṅarthas tu viśeṣaṇam //
The first verse states, in terms of a maṅgala of a benedictory type, that thoughts represented in the work are endorsed by Patañjali's Maha̅bha̅sya. The second verse, with which the present paper is chiefly concerned, reveals Bhaṭṭoji Di̅kṣita's own view regarding the meanings of verbal roots (dha̅tu). In this verse it is stated (1) that in a verbal form such as pacati 'He is cooking' verbal root (pac 'cook') denotes an action (vya̅pa̅ra) and its result (phala) separately, and affix ('ti') denotes substratum (a̅śraya) of the action-in an utterance such as pacyate '[Something] is being cooked' affix ('te') denotes one of the action's result, and (2) that among the meanings of a verbal form including two other meanings, viz. a number (saṁkhya̅) and a time (ka̅la) reference, action becomes most prominent (pradha̅na) and others are qualifiers (viśeṣaṇa) with respect to it. Here is expressed the idea that in a verbal cognition (śa̅bdabodha) an action conveyed by a verbal root appears as the chief qualificand (dha̅tvarthavya̅pa̅ramukhyaviśesyakabodha).
In his Vaiya̅karaṇabhu̅ṣaṇasa̅ra on this verse, Kaunḍabhaṭṭa is involved mainly in criticizing the views of the Nya̅ya and the Mị̅ma̅ṁnsa̅ Bha̅ṭṭa schools. Naiya̅yikas maintain that in an utterance such as pacati the verbal affix denotes '(interal, conscious) effort' (kṛti) which is nothing but an action according to the grammarians and is to be related to the significand of a nominative form as its qualifier (prathama̅nta̅rthamukhyaviśesyakabodha). Bha̅ṭṭa Mi̅ma̅ṁsakas, on the other hand, hold that an action (bha̅vana̅) which is denoted by an verbal affix (a̅khya̅ta) appears as the principal qualificand in a verbal cognition (a̅khya̅ta̅rthabha̅vana̅mukhyaviśeṣyakabodha).
The following is a synopsis of the Vaiya̅karaṇabhu̅ṣaṇasa̅ra on k.2.
2.1. Syntactical agreement between dha̅tuḥ and smṛta̅ḥ
2.2.1. What is 'result' (phala) ?
220.127.116.11. Definition of 'action' (vya̅pa̅ra)
18.104.22.168. Definition of the state of being to be accomplished (sa̅dhyatva)
22.214.171.124. śakyata̅vacchedaka for a verbal root: homonymy
2.3.0. śakyata̅vacchedaka for a verbal affix: Substratum-hood (a̅śrayata̅)
2.3.1. Means of grasping the denotative relation (śakti) of a verbal affix to a substratum — P3.4.69
2.3.2. Nya̅ya interpretation of P3.4.69
126.96.36.199. Bha̅ṭṭa Mi̅ma̅ṁsakas' interpretation of P3.4.69
188.8.131.52. Means of grasping the denotative relation of a verbal affix to an action — 'paraphrase' (vivaraṇa)
184.108.40.206. Denotata of a verbal affix and a nominative form related by abheda (non-difference)
220.127.116.11. Bha̅ṭṭa Mi̅ma̅ṁsakas' justification of coreferentiality of a verbal affix and a nominative form
2.3.5. No denotative relation of L-affixes to substratum
2.4.0. The meaning of a complex (a verbal form): the qualificandqualifier relation (viśeṣaṇaviśeṣyabha̅va)
2.4.1. The agent (kartṛ) and object (karman) qualify an action and its result respectively
18.104.22.168. Number (saṁkhya̅) qualifies an agent and an object
22.214.171.124. Theory of prathama̅nta̅rthamukhyaviśeṣyakabodha criticized
126.96.36.199. Time (ka̅la) qualifies an action
188.8.131.52. Demonstrations of it
184.108.40.206. The view that time qualifies action's result proposed and criticized
220.127.116.11. The qualificand-qualifier relation summed up
18.104.22.168. dha̅tvarthavya̅pa̅ramukhyaviśeṣyabodha authorized by the Nirukta and the Maha̅bha̅ṣya
22.214.171.124. Grammarians' view supported by the usage paśya mṛgo dha̅vati ('Look! The deer is running')
126.96.36.199. Causal relation between qaulificative cognition whose qualifier is an action and recollection of the denotatum of a word (pada̅rthopasthiti) proposed
188.8.131.52. pacati ('He is cooking') and pacyate ('[Something] is being cooked' — verbal cognitions explained
184.108.40.206. ghaṭo naśyati ('A pot is perishing') — verbal cognition explained
220.127.116.11. devadatto ja̅na̅ti ('Devadatta cognizes [something]) and devdatto icchati ('Devadatta desires [something]) — verbal cognitions explained
In this translation, the author has given copious annotaions in order to facilitate the reader to understand what Kauṇḍabhaṭṭa means in his laconic statements.