Vākyapadīya 「〈能成者〉詳解」(Sādhanasamuddeśa)の研究 : VP 3.7.87–89
A Study of the Sādhanasamuddeśa of theVākyapadīya: VP 3.7.87–89
With three kārikās: VP 3.7.87–89, Bhartṛhari concludes the section on karman ‘object’ of the Sādhanasamuddeśa of his Vākyapadīya (abbr. VP). In VP 3.7.87 Bhartṛhari deals with arguments brought forward by Kātyāyana about the question of how to account for the assignment of the class name karman, provided for by A 1.4.49 kartur īpsitatamaṃ karma, to raw sugar (guḍa) in the utterance guḍaṃ bhakṣayati ‘He is eating raw sugar’. In order to account for the assignment in question, Bhartṛhari introduces the concept of kriyāviṣayāpatti ‘the acquisition of the status of being an object (viṣaya) of an action’. According to him, a kāraka which serves as object (karman) with respect to an action must have this status, so that such a kāraka is properly defined as a reached object (prāpya). Some ‘reached’ objects are of ‘effected’ type (nirvartya); some are of ‘affected’ type (vikārya); others are of neither type. In short, to be an object (karman) with respect to an action is to be an object (viṣaya) with respect to the action (kriyāviṣaya). The object (viṣaya) is that in which occurs a result brought into being by the action.
Then, it naturally from this that any verb, which denotes an action, has an object (sakarmaka), since any action must have its object (viṣaya).
In VP 3.7.88–89, Bhartṛhari classifies cases where a verb is said to have no object (akarmaka). There are four cases. Instances are given by Helārāja.
1. The denotation of different meanings (arthāntaravṛtti) by a verb
vah: nadī vahati ‘The river flows.’ ← → bhāraṃ vahati ‘He is carrying a load.’
uc-car: bāṣpa uccarati ‘Vapors are rising.’ ← → kurūṃś carati ‘He is going to the Kuru country.’
2. The inclusion of an object in a verb meaning (dhātvarthasaṃgraha)
jīv: jīvati ‘He is living.’ = prāṇān dhārayati ‘He is preserving his vitality.’
3. An object being well-known (prasiddhi)
vṛṣ: varṣati ‘The god—Parjanya—causes rain to fall.’ = jalaṃ varṣati ‘The god—Parjanya— causes rainwater to fall.’
4. Lack of intention to convey an object (avivakṣā)
anu-vad: anuvadate kaṭhaḥ kalāpasya ‘The Kaṭha expert chants in the same manner as the Kalāpa expert.’ ← → pūrvam eva yajur uditam anuvadati ‘He repeats the chanting of the Yajus, chanted earlier.’
Bhartṛhari distinguishes between internal and external objects (karman) relative to a verb meaning (dhātvartha), accepting that the former is what is conceptually posited. We can distinguish therefore between two kinds of verbs, which may be conveniently called ‘sakarmaka’ and ‘akarmaka’ according to whether or not they have external objects to be expressed. This distinction is in effect in the domain of derivational system, which is meant for explaining actual usage. On the other hand, from a semantic point of view, an object (karman) kāraka is essential to an action coming about. For any action has its object (viṣaya).