学校をめぐる住民と国家の関係史 : メキシコの教育普及過程における住民の教育要求
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The history of relation between the inhabitants and the state around the school : The educational demands of the inhabitants in the spread of education in Mexico
In Mexico the State intended to integrate the nation by creating "Mexican" and a homogenous culture through the education all over the country after 1920's. The inhabitants, on the other hand, tried to pursue their interests and rights by cooperating and compromising with the State, or being confronted with it. The spread of schools meant the creation of a new social space where the inhabitants and the State negotiate with each other over power, rights, culture etc. The object of this paper is to clarify the relation between the inhabitants and the State in the process of the spread of education in Mexico after 1920 by examining the educational demands of the inhabitants through their written petitions. For the few decades after 1920, the federal government could not disburse for all the educational facilities like shoolhouse, playground, workshop etc. The inhabitants, on their part, provided funds, materials, and labor to construct or improve the school. As a consequence, they got to consider the school and its facilities as their own belongings. And they tried to use it for various activities of the town besides the educational ones. Furthermore, the inhabitants gave great support to the teachers sent by the government by furnishing them with transportation, house, food and so on. That is, the teachers could never carry out the educational activities, nor even live in the town where they worked, without the cooperation of the inhabitants. Offering their cooperation, the inhabitants required the educational authorities to send various things such as teacher, school supplies etc., and to change teachers who did not come up to the inhabitant's expectation for new one's. And the authorities had to take these requirements into consideration. For the State the school has been an apparatus to control the people and inculcate its ideology into them. For inhabitants, on the other hand, it has functioned as a tool to negotiate with the State in pursuit of their own interests and rights in addition to the education for their children.
広島大学総合科学部紀要. I, 地域文化研究