The purpose of this article is to investigate the changes and problems of China's rural Society under the policy of agricultural modernization after Peoples' Commune. The following three problems will be dealt with in this paper. 1) the elements making up the Specialized Households Management. 2) the functions of the New Agricultural Economic Association after Peoples' Commune. 3) the co-operations with the New Agricultural Economic Association and Farmers' Household-based Management. The problems will be discussed from the following three viewpoints. 1) the conditions of the development of the Farmers' Household-based Management. 2) the character and the process of establishment of A New Agricultural Association. 3) the problems of the New Agricultural Association and the Specialized Household Management facing rural society.