This article aims to investigate the social background and its influence on recruitment of the 92 candidates who were elected to the House of Representatives during this prewar period. Firstly, this 55 years saw the emergence of a new 'nationally oriented group' which used their influence on a national level. They were the chairman of committee in Imperial Diet, cabinet members and executives of political parties. Secondly, a new political elite was taking the place of the old one. In the prewar period we could find a few Imperial Diet members whose fathers and brothers were the local politicians. After the Second World War, Imperial Diet members entering from bureaucracy whose fathers had also been members of Imperial Diet emerged.At the same time 'the locality oriented type' has remained. In the pre-war period in Hiroshima Prefecture, retired Imperial Diet members often became local politicians, and the typical post-war recruitment pattern in which Diet members were selected from among high-ranking bureaucrats who had graduated from Tokyo University, was still not to be found. It is important to recognize that there was a continuity and a change in the social background and recruitment on both a national and a local level.