To investigate the sustainability of small coffee farmers in a developing country, the interview survey for small coffee farmers in Sri Lanka and the non-governmental organization (NGO) “Japan Fair Trade Committee (JFTC),” which imports and sells Sri Lankan coffee in Japan, were studied. Accordingly, it was elucidated that JFTC is involved in building the total distribution structure of Sri Lankan coffee, from buying coffee beans from farmers to selling it in Japan by setting up some affiliated companies Sri Lanka and Japan. Moreover, they endeavor to develop the coffee market not only in Japan but also in Sri Lanka. This new distribution channels and jobs, and enhances the sustainability of small coffee farms in Sri Lanka. It also promotes womenʼs role and economic empowerment in a developing economy. Therefore, increasing fair trade this way enhances sustainability of small farmers in developing countries. To facilitate this, consumers need to buy products imported via fair trade, which will increase the number of NGOs and companies conducting fair trade.