The aim of this paper is to consider the difference of peace consciousness in four cities by comparing the results of opinion survey of secondary school students. The purpose of the opinion survey is to analyze the opinion of the students on peace and war, and the method for peace building. The investigation target group is Year 9 students of secondary schools in the four cities. The survey was conducted from January to May 2009, and its sample number is 505 students.
This paper presents three working hypotheses:(1) Sino-Japanese war history affects strongly to the peace consciousness of students in Shanghai. The different political system between China, Japan and the US affects the formation of peace awareness of secondary school students. (2) History of the Pacific War strongly influences peace consciousness of students in Honolulu and Denver. The war against Germany and Japan affects the contents of war history told to American students, and that history influences the methods of peace building for students in the US. (3) The United States and Japan have a long history of free political and social society and peace movements. Students in Honolulu, Denver and Kyoto are more affective to activities for peace building and know more about the methods for it than Shanghai students do.
The survey results show as follows: Kyoto students show more pacifist attitude for international conflict resolution than other students. The opinion of Shanghai students on war is similar to Denver students. Many of Shanghai students have visited war against Japan museum and Nanking massacre museum. Students who have visited such museums seem to tend to agree with the Just War Theory. But some of them answer that they should learn about anti-Japan war for nowadays peace building. The parents of student in Shanghai, Honolulu and Denver seem to talk about the history of World War II rather often than the parents in Kyoto. The contents of war history told in families, museums and schools seem to be different in each city.
About 80 percent students in four cities answer that they want to do something for a peaceful society. So students in four cities want to contribute to peace building in the same level. Honolulu, Denver and Kyoto students know more concretely about peace groups than Shanghai students. The opinion of Kyoto students is very peace-oriented, but talking about war history by Japanese parents is very small compared with parents in other cities.