Tatuo MORITO, who was the first president of Hiroshima University, was one of the most important Japanese intellectuals of the prewar and postwar period. He was involved in the establishment of the Constitution of Japan and was a politician after the war. After MORITO retired from the House of Representatives, he became president of Hiroshima University and played an important role in peace issues, based on Hiroshima's history as the first place destroyed by atomic weapons. His aim in Hiroshima was to investigate the university and the peculiar meaning of peace, as it was symbolized by the word “HIROSHIMA". MORITO counted on the United Nations, and pushed forward with the restoration of Hiroshima as International peaceful city. MORITO claimed to advance the ideal of peace gradually and was opposed to anti-American forces, which were influenced by movements against atomic and hydrogen bombs and nationalistic ideologies. Even at the present, there are two different political opinions about Hiroshima and peace.