This book aims to clarify the various realities of the college entrance examination system in China from the perspective of diversification and social justice. It consists of eight chapters, the first half of which are devoted to diversification and the second half to fairness. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an overview of the changes in high school curricula, college entrance examination systems and the society. This is followed by a discussion at the institutional level. Then, Chapter 3 clarifies the actual situation in college entrance examinations, which is the interface between new academic skills and diversification. Fairness is always an issue when assessing new academic skills, and the chapter analyzes the problems that have emerged in China. Chapter 4 clarifies the actual situation and the issues that have arisen from the fact that research universities have been selecting students outside of traditional standardized examinations (or voluntary university recruitment). It also examines why the practice has declined in recent years. Chapter 5 examines how the composition and use of entrance examination questions have changed from province to province, and since entrance examination questions are now being standardized, it will also add a comparison of college entrance opportunities in provinces that use the same questions.
Based on the reality of such diversification, the latter half of the chapters will discuss social justice, especially the measures taken to correct various disparities in college entrance examinations. Chapter 6 organizes and analyzes the points in examinations awarded by each province, and Chapter 7 compares the special quotas (rural quota, poverty quota, etc.) established by each province (universities located in each province). The final chapter, Chapter 8, discusses the history of the establishment of ethnic universities and ethnic prep classes for ethnic minorities, and analyzes how they relate to the correction of disparities.