The purpose of this study is to make a comparative study of international faculty members, focused on their recruitment, striking characteristics, main academic activities, and perceptions of internationalization of higher education and the academic labor market based on cases of Australia, China and Japan. The study also attempts to identify the main issues that international faculty members at Japanese universities face and offer implications for policy by analyzing these case studies. The first chapter is about international faculty members’ work roles, their views of internationalization of Australian higher education and career plans based on interviews with key persons from two Australian universities. The second chapter deals with policies and practices of hiring international faculty members at Chinese universities based on a national survey and interviews with both international faculty members and their colleagues. The third chapter is concerned with the most striking characteristics of international faculty at Japanese universities based on national statistics and interviews. The fourth chapter presents the key features of international faculty members at Japanese universities focused on their personal, educational and professional profiles, and teaching and research activities. The fifth chapter concentrates on discussing Chinese faculty members at Japanese universities. The sixth chapter analyzes international faculty members’ activities and perceptions based on the case of S national university in Japan.