This integrative review of literature aims to analyze and evaluate research studies on teachers’ understanding of Science Process Skills (SPS) in science education and its importance for the current science education reforms in Africa. The review involved analyzing and synthesizing some research work conducted globally considering the educational significance of SPS and the importance of teachers’ understanding of SPS on science education. Then an evaluation of previous research studies from the viewpoints of the science curriculum, teacher education and the 21st Century Learning on SPS education under the African perspective was conducted. Findings in this review showed that teachers’ understanding of SPS helps in empowering students to learn science through the application of SPS during the science learning process. Furthermore, findings state that SPS greatly influence not only one’s education but also the ability to contribute to economic development positively. However, review findings indicate uneven inclusion of SPS in the curriculum documents as well as during the curriculum implementation at all the levels of science education. Lastly, results display a few studies on teachers’ understanding of SPS development in science conducted in African countries. Many of the reviewed studies for teachers’ understanding of SPS is on research studies conducted in developed countries. The need for teachers’ understanding of SPS to be at a high level and the educational significance these skills cannot be overemphasized. Excellent teachers’ understanding of SPS and its implementation in science education can have a positive impact on would be (students) economic drivers and scientist, especially in Africa, where the application of scientific knowledge is still low.