In this research-paper， the following problems in japanese Cattle marketing are examined ; (a) organization， margins and costs of the marketing， (b) different activities performed by the dealers in distributing cattle.
Organization ， Margins and Costs 01 Marketing Japanese Cattle.
When selling their cattle ， either for a slaughtering or for a stocking and feeding， farmers may have many outlets available. The typical ones are channels through which the cattle may be moved to the slaughtering plant as shown in Fig. 1. In all cases ， the “economic distance in time" from the breeding farms to the slaughtering plants used to be very long (6 or 7 years average). However， with the progress in transformation-utilities of japanese Cattle into beef， the economic distance between breeding and slaughtering has been greatly reduced， not only “in time ” but also ''in operative areas" due to directbuying and selling between the demand and supply area swhich has become more universal in recent years.
The direct marketing of cattle has been promorted through association and integration of small size local markets. Furthermore， the coopcrative system of producers in marketing cattle and the application of an efficient legal system to livestock markets or slaughtering plants have resulted in a remarkable improvement of the marketing organization for japanese Cattle ， by reducing the marketing costs and margins.
Different Activities Performed the Dealers in Distributing Cattle.
In the handling of japanese Cattle， the prevailing procedure is to buy the cattle or calves from country dealers and then to sell them by public auction or directly to the dealers. Dealers who handlecalves and cattle used to buy directly from farmers or at auctions. They have continued to play an important part in the marketing of cattle and have exploited the farmers by holding on thier own peculiar habits of handling, or through the so-called "share-tenancy of cattle". However, since marketing-methods have changed greatly after World War II, dealers generally have adjusted themselves have to fit the new conditions. The excessive margins obtained by the dealers in marketing cattle decreased greatly now-adays yet the old custom of trading and the realization of illogical margins are still alive.