広島大学水畜産学部紀要 5巻 1号
1963-12-20 発行

ブロイラーの流通 : 大阪市場を中心として

Broiler marketing in the Kansai Districts
小野 茂樹
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(1) In this paper, the following subjects of the problem on broiler marketing in the Kansai districts are analyzed: (a) general characteristics on the broiler market, (b) the quotation for broilers in Osaka, (c) marketing routes, costs or margins on living birds and processed ones, (d) regional differences of economical situation to process birds, and (e) the peculiar quasi-integration in the broiler industry.

(2) Broiler marketing has developed centering around Osaka where about 20 thousand birds per diem are transacted. The broiler-producing districts marketing to Osaka are distributed widely but dottily in Kansai: Kinki, Chugoku and Shikoku, but the types or manners of marketing the birds differ with the districts. These can be classified into 4 large groups: (a) direct marketing between chicken-dealers in Osaka and broiler growers, deaelrs or processors in the producing districts, (b) marketing through the intermediation of a wholesale dealer in Osaka, (c) marketing on the standing arrangements with particular processors, feed-dealers and chicken-dealers, and (d) marketing through the Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Unions. The case of (c) or (d) has been extending in the remote districts from Osaka and also is limited in marketing of processed birds.

(3) It is estimated that nearly 80 % of all birds are marketed as living birds among the chicken-dealers, because the freshness of chicken is esteemed as a condtion to form the commodity value of birds and also the marketing margins received by chicken-dealers are usually composed of the margin to process the birds. Neverthless, from the distant districts the processed birds must be consigned to Osaka, because of heavy losses in weight of living birds under transportation.

(4) The active expansion of demand for broilers has been altering the situation of marketing in the Kansai districts; there has been seen the commercialization of slaughter process of broilers by specializing it from the chicken-retail process, and with this as a motive, chicken-dealers in Osaka are faced with a conflict of interests to deal in processed birds.

Namely, on the one hand they have to approve of the necessity to deal in processed birds for the demand of the department stores, super-markets, restaurants or hotels and also for the labour famine at chicken shops, on the other hand they would be afraid of the reduction of retail margins which is corresponding to the slaughter margin.

In a very real sense, then, at the case of purchasing the slaughtered birds the chicken-dealers retail them leaving a fair profit as much as when dealing in the living birds, by watering the total marketing margins.

But on the assumption that the mutual competition of chicken-retailers would become keen for the expanding demand of broilers in future, watered profits enjoyed by the chicken叫dealers would not be permitted economically, and there would not be anything for them to sell more broilers by decreasing the margin per bird.

(5) Several plants to process the birds were established in the producing districts in Kansai, originally to market them to Osaka, but in the areas where local market for broilers has been cultivated, the processors begin to find their market at their own districts, to keep away from the burden of transportation costs and lower quotations of processed birds on the Osaka market. But in the areas where local marketing is not in advance, the processors inevitably sell their products to the chicken-dealers in Osaka who are usually in contract with them.

Thus, the broiler industry and its marketing are developing near around Osaka most favourably for the growers, because they can market their living birds directly to the chicken-dealers at small costs of transportation and higher quotation on the market.