This study aimed to investigate the effects of the timing of note taking on repeated listening for advanced Chinese learners of Japanese. The two independent variables were participants’ working memory capacity and the timing of the note taking. The main results were as follows: In the free recall test, there was a marginal significance that participants with a low working-memory capacity demonstrated better performance when taking notes during the first trail than participants with a high working-memory capacity. However in the fill-in-blank test, regardless of the timing of the note taking, a difference according to the size of working memory capacity was not found. Further, it was found that taking notes during the first trail left a stronger memory trace, whereas taking notes during the second trail was helpful for the understanding of target passages. These results suggest that learners with a smaller memory span can perform better with note taking and learners with a larger memory span are better of taking notes after the first trail.